Software Engineering: Art or Engineering?

For some reason software engineers and others who deal with software love sitting around debating whether software engineering is more art or engineering. Part of the problem comes from how software engineering came to be, the term assigned as more a challenge by the NATO Science Committee for the software industry to get its act together; one great big label to talk about many things. Software engineering covers all aspects of software development including requirements, formal modeling, estimation, planning, tracking, managing people, processes, designing, coding, testing, deploying, and maintaining just to mention the most obvious required skill sets. Some aspects of software engineering are not heavily engineering oriented and require no mathematical or scientific reasoning such as requirements and managing people. Many aspects can benefit greatly from a mathematical background but math is not required to “get by” such as when writing code, testing, or planning a project. This is unfortunate. Confusion and arguments abound among both the academic and professional software engineering communities creating holes in the professional software world where no talent amateurs defend abominable code and runaway projects under the guise of “artistic expression.” Software engineering is an engineering discipline.

I’m not saying there isn’t a creative component to software engineering. In fact, there is a huge creative component and creative problem solving is essential for building great software. I’m also not saying that code and the resultant software can’t be aesthetically pleasing. It absolutely can and should have good aesthetics. I enjoy reading well written, elegant code and always do the best I can when writing software myself. What I am saying is that art is more than just creativity and elegance and in almost all cases, software falls well short of art. Since the vast majority of software is not art, why should the people who wrote it be considered artists?

My neighbor upstairs is an artist in the traditional sense. He writes and plays music, he paints, he makes stained glass, and he’s a professor of eurhythmics (more specifically Dalcroze Eurhythmics) at Carnegie Mellon University. As you can imagine, he’s a really cool guy. He’s actually one of a handful of eurhythmics grand masters in the world and attended the world eurhythmics conference in Tokyo this past summer. From what I gathered from talking with him, eurhythmics is a way of studying art through the body’s motions. The most obvious application is music and dance but it’s not too difficult to imagine a painter creating a masterpiece; moving with the flow of the painting as it is created.

Some have even tried applying eurhythmics to study other, non-traditional art forms such as architecture and even mathematics. He explained it to me something like this. A brilliant mathematician working on an elegant proof might be considered more of an artist. But only someone truly brilliant who is in the zone, able to see all the connections of the work with unbridled clarity, tuning out the outside world (much like flow when programming), with body and mind working as one to solve a proof might be considered to be making art rather than doing math. It’s an extreme extension of eurhythmics theory, but it seems plausible.

The argument for treating software engineering as an art form is similar. Writing software could be considered art but only in the hands of truly brilliant software developers (Paul Graham calls them hackers) and only when those truly brilliant software developers are in the zone, building something amazing. Everyone else is just writing code. Much like how no one would consider multiplication tables artistic, anyone who considers churning out code without intention or understanding of what is written as art is kidding themselves. Looking at software engineering from the perspective of eurhythmics lets us state this more as a fact than an opinion.

Making this distinction is important because treating software like art and software engineers like artists is damaging to the industry. Only the greatest, most brilliant developers might ever have the ability to build software as artists. Everyone else is just trying to get by, much like the many thousands of starving artists who are never discovered, never hit it big, or whose muse never makes it around for a visit. Treating software like art allows developers who don’t have the artistic chops to have the excuse of creating poor quality software that is not fit for the purposes of its creation.

Fitness for purpose is another key distinction. Art exists to evoke emotion but software has a utility. In many cases, software is too important for it to not work correctly. Approaching software development from an engineering perspective creates an environment where it is possible for the rest of us to create working software that is still fit for purpose. Again, I’m not saying that software can’t be have good aesthetics, it should, I’m simply saying that a systematic, critical, methodical, mathematical, scientific approach to building software is required for most people to succeed – much like how architects need a solid foundation in physics and engineering to build beautiful buildings.

I like the idea of software as art. Artists are cool and thinking of myself as an artist allows me to justify extravagant behavior that, as a creative knowledge worker, I know I need. On the other hand, I rarely care about using software as a medium for creating an emotional experience for my users. I only really care about creating something great that helps users kick ass while accomplishing whatever it is that they want to do. Following sound engineering principles helps me meet this goal consistently.

Building software is a creative endeavor and the engineering part of the field is still very young compared to other engineering disciplines. But treating software engineering like an art form is a copout, an excuse for ignoring the sound engineering practices that do exist because they’re difficult or boring or unappealing. There are important creative components to building software but that shouldn’t hide the fact that proven engineering practices can and should be used too.


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